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Peter-Reinhart
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Re: Author Visit: Peter Reinhart 2/18 Noon-1:30 PM EST

Hi Andrea,

    I would love to come to Germany but someone would have to invite me and set it up--I don't have any contacts there and it's a costly proposition. As for translations, I'll mention to this my publisher--this is one of those decisions that they get to make but I'll see if they're considering it. I think the BBA ("Bread Baker's Apprentice") has been translated into Spanish. Not sure if it's in any other languages but it would be a great honor if there was enough interest in Germany or Japan or other countries.

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valeriecomer
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Re: Author Visit: Peter Reinhart 2/18 Noon-1:30 PM EST

Thanks for suggesting some options, Peter. I'll give those a try.

 

Valerie

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OscarBoscar
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Re: Author Visit: Peter Reinhart 2/18 Noon-1:30 PM EST

Hello Peter,

 

Can you tell me the difference and the conversions between instant, active-dry, rapid rise, and fresh yeast? Are certain yeasts better for certain baked goods?

 

Thank you!

Author
Peter-Reinhart
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Re: Author Visit: Peter Reinhart 2/18 Noon-1:30 PM EST

To Staho88,

    Yes, you can add vital wheat gluten (VWG) to other flour to make them stronger, but a little goes a long way. The usual rule of thumb is to add no more than 2% of the flour weight or else it can make the dough rubbery and affect the taste. There are always exceptions to this but that's a guideline.

   Hard spring wheat is, by definition, a high protein/gluten strain of wheat. Hard refers to protein (soft wheat is used for cak and pastry flour and both hard and soft wheat are used for all purpose flour). Spring wheat is planted in the spring and harvested later that year, while winter wheat is planted in late fall and hibernates in the ground over the winter. The same wheat seeds (aka kernals or berries) planted at these different times will produce wheat with very different characteristics. Hard spring wheat is often the highest protein of them all but, again, it depends on many factors. Finally, no, I would hesitate to add VWG to hard spring wheat flour.

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ap269
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Re: Author Visit: Peter Reinhart 2/18 Noon-1:30 PM EST

Are you familiar with the German flour types? The numbers, that indicate the ash content? I always use type 812 or 1050 when your recipes call for bread flour. Sometimes I add vital wheat gluten.

Author
Peter-Reinhart
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Re: Author Visit: Peter Reinhart 2/18 Noon-1:30 PM EST

Hi Andrea,

    I'm honored to have written a book, "The Bread Bakers Apprentice," that was considered worthy of a "challenge" and am very excited about what I've seen so far, and have received only a few distressed e-mails about problematic recipes. I even met some of the folks participating in it when I was teaching recently thoughout Texas and also here in Charlotte. I haven't ben back to the original site in a few weeks so I'm not sure how close to the end it is, but it seemed as though some of the participants were near the end. There's a new challenge starting up at www.cookbooker.com/challenge.php  based on the new book, so anyone who wants to get in on that check it out. I think the cookbooker folks are doing a similar thing with other cook book authors as well.

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Peter-Reinhart
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Re: Author Visit: Peter Reinhart 2/18 Noon-1:30 PM EST

Hi Coffee Grounded (great handle, BTW),

    Salt helps to firm up the gluten and give it more elasticity. A lot of bakers withhold it during the early stages of mixing to allow the flour and other ingredients to fully hydrate first. The salt slows this process down, so you can actually reduce mixing time by adding the salt later. As soon as you do you should see an instant tightening or firming of the dough. As for improved performance, I haven't heard a lot of feedback on whether the dough is more extensible (the opposite of elastic) when you delay the salt but it could very well be true. I can't give a definitive opinion on this but can only say, if it makes a positive difference then keep doing it. I'll have to run a side by side test on this myself. Thanks for pointing it out.

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ap269
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Re: Author Visit: Peter Reinhart 2/18 Noon-1:30 PM EST

Thank you so much for letting me know about the new challenge. I own the new book already and would love to participate. I'm coming to the end with the BBA Challenge: Tuscan bread is rising right now. My biggest favorites were Italian Bread and Portuguese Sweet Bread.

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Peter-Reinhart
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Re: Author Visit: Peter Reinhart 2/18 Noon-1:30 PM EST

           Here's a recipe I was able to take from a draft file that appears in the new book. My recipe testers sent back rave reviews for this one and it's one of the easiest to make and illustrates the basic overnight method upon which the whole book is based. See what you think

 

                 Hoagie and Cheese Steak Rolls (from "Artisan Breads Everyday" by Peter Reinhart, copyright 2009)

 

          I get e-mails all the time asking for Philadelphia-style hoagie and cheese steak rolls. Many people believe that no one makes a good version of this roll outside of Philadelphia’s Amoroso’s Bakery which is, of course, not true. But there is something about the cultural identity connection we Philly-folk have with these iconic sandwiches that cause us to be overly sensitive on the subject of interlopers.  

            The key to this roll is a nice balance of texture and flavor, somewhere between lean dough and  soft enriched dough, with just enough “chew” to stand up to the fillings but not so much that we have to work overly hard to eat the darn thing. The overnight fermentation method is ideal for this because it brings out maximum flavor with very little hands-on time.

 

Notes:

--This version calls for a small amount of barley malt syrup, similar to what we use in the bagel recipe. It is optional, but does provide a nice undertone of flavor that is difficult for anyone to identify, and also helps with crust color. You can substitute malt powder, but use one quarter the amount by weight.

--The bread is lightly enriched with milk and sugar, but not too much. These enrichments are what give the bread its soft but not too soft texture.

--Feel free to substitute whole wheat or other whole grain flour for some of the bread flour. If so, increase the water by about 1 tablespoon for every ounce of whole grain flour.

-- As with many of the recipes in this book, you can bake all or part of the dough over a few day period. Just return the unbaked portion of dough to the refrigerator as soon as you cut off what you need.

--The dough also makes great Kaiser or bulkie rolls.

 

 

Hoagie and Cheese Steak Rolls

(makes 10 six-inch rolls or 5 foot-long rolls)

<measure>

<ounces>

<grams>

<ingredient>

<%>

###

(### ounces)

(### grams)

xxx

###

5  1/3 cups

24 oz.

(1# 8 oz.)

680

Unbleached bread flour

100

2 teaspoons (1 tablespoon if coarse kosher salt)

0.5 oz

14

Salt

2

1 tablespoon

0.5 oz.

14

Granulated sugar

2

2 teaspoons

 (or 1 teaspoon malt powder)

0.5 oz.

14

Barley malt syrup (or malt powder), optional

2

1 egg

1.75

50

egg

7.25

3 tablespoons

1.5 oz.

43

Vegetable oil

6.25

½ cup plus 2 tablespoons

5 oz

142

Milk, any kind, lukewarm

21

1 cup

 

2 1/4 teaspoons

 

8 oz.

 

0.25 oz

227

 

7

Water, lukewarm

 

Instant yeast

33

 

1

 

42 oz. (approx.)

1205 gr.

Total

 

 

  1. In the mixing bowl, stir together the flour, salt, and sugar. In a separate bowl combine the malt syrup (if using), egg, and oil and whisk together. In a saucepan, bring the milk and water to lukewarm and whisk in the instant yeast to dissolve it.
  2. Add the oil mixture and the yeast/liquid mixture to the dry ingredients and, using the dough hook (or by hand), mix on low speed for 4 minutes to form a coarse ball of dough. Let the dough sit for 5 minutes and then continue mixing for an additional 2 minutes on medium low speed, adjusting the flour or water as needed to form a smooth, supple, tacky but not sticky dough. Transfer the dough to a work surface that has been lightly dusted with flour and knead by hand for 1 minute, making final adjustments in flour or water, as needed. Form the dough into a ball and place it into a lightly oiled bowl, cover the bowl (not the dough) tightly with plastic wrap, and immediately place it into the refrigerator, overnight or for up to 4 days. Be sure the bowl is large enough to hold the dough when it doubles in size.
  3. 3.                 On the day you bake the rolls, remove the dough from the refrigerator two hours before you plan to bake, cut off the amount of dough you need (return the remainder to the refrigerator), and divide the cold dough into 4 ounce pieces (or 8 oz. if you want foot-long rolls). Flatten each piece of dough with your hand and then form it into a 4” torpedo shape, much as you would a batard (or 7” for a foot-long). Let the dough rest as you move on to the other pieces. Return to the first torpedo and roll it out again to about 7” (13” for a foot-long). The roll should have only a very slight taper at the ends. Place it on a parchment or silpat lined sheet pan; it may shrink back about 1” as you pan it. Continue with the other pieces, allowing 2” between each roll (it may take two pans if you are making up the entire batch). Mist the tops of the rolls with spray oil and cover loosely with plastic wrap.  
  4. 4.                 Proof the dough at room temperature for one hour. Remove the plastic wrap from the rolls and preheat the oven to 425° F./218° C. Also preheat a steam pan (cast iron frying pan or sheet pan). Continue to proof the dough for another 15 minutes, uncovered, while the oven heats. The dough will rise slightly but not more than 50% of its original size, if that.  
  5. 5.                 Use a sharp serrated knife or razor blade and cut a slit down the center of each roll, about 1/4” deep and about 3 1/2” long (or 8” for the foot-long). Let the dough proof for an additional 15 minutes after you make the cuts, then, place the pan of rolls in the oven, pour 1 cup of hot water in the steam pan, and reduce the temperature to 400° F./204° C.  Bake for 10 minutes and then rotate the pan. Continue baking another 10 to 20 minutes, or until the rolls are a light golden brown and register 190° F/88° C. in the center. Cool for at least 1 hour before serving.

 

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CoffeeGrounded
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Re: Author Visit: Peter Reinhart 2/18 Noon-1:30 PM EST

I have egg on my face!  I should have said, elastic, not extensible.....oops!

 

It is the fact that I notice a more elastic dough after delaying the addition of the salt.  My dough always performs better, allowing me a larger crumb (on especially lean doughs) and easier stretch and folds.  And your right!  It does cut down on mixing time!!!

 

Margie

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Tim81
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Re: Author Visit: Peter Reinhart 2/18 Noon-1:30 PM EST

Hello Again,

Few more questions, pardon the length...

 

-In your recipe for French bread in Artisan Breads Everyday (p.49) at the bottom of the “do ahead” section it says, “Switch to the dough hook and mix on medium-low speed for 2 minutes or knead by hand for about 2 minutes, adjusting with flour or water as needed.  The dough should be smooth, supple, and tacky, but not sticky.  New paragraph-Whichever mixing method you use, knead the dough by hand on a lightly floured work surface for about 1 minute more, then transfer it to a clean, lightly oiled bowl.  Cover the bowl with plastic wrap, then immediately refrigerate overnight or for up to 4 days.  If the dough feels too wet and sticky, do not add more flour; instead stretch and fold it one or more times at 10-minute intervals, as shown on page 18, before putting it in the refrigerator.” 

 

I am a bit confused about the placement of the “stretch and fold…before the refrigerator” in the last sentence because to me it seems that the dough would not be too wet and sticky because the paragraph above this statement says to use flour and water until it is smooth, supple, and tacky.  I realize I am probably missing something here.  What are your thoughts?

 

-Would it be okay if I used your French Bread Recipe for a blog video I am planning on doing?

(for baking in 10 minutes)  My blog (www.theologyandcooking.com) should be up in a week or so and I am planning on doing some baking and cooking video recipes. 

 

-I know you seemed to adapt some of your baking recipes based off of some of the new kneadless baking research, yet you still seem sold on kneading. What are your thoughts on this?

 

Thanks again,

Tim

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Tim81
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Re: Author Visit: Peter Reinhart 2/18 Noon-1:30 PM EST

sorry the (for baking in 10 minutes) was a note that I meant to delete. :smileyhappy:

Author
Peter-Reinhart
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Re: Author Visit: Peter Reinhart 2/18 Noon-1:30 PM EST

Hi Oscar,

    There are basically three kinds of yeast: fresh (aka compressed), active dry (aka dry active), and instant (aka Rapid Rise, Perfect Rise, SAF, and Bread Machine Yeast). The conversion rate is typically 100% fresh yeast = 50% active dry = 33% instant. In other words, you need three times more fresh yeast than instant yeast because of the concentration of living yeast cells in instant yeast is 300% more than in fresh. If you have to make a conversion from active dry to instant, you simply reduce the amount by 25% (that is, 1 1/4 teaspoons active dry yeast = 1 teaspoon instant yeast). If the recipe calls for 1 teaspoon of instant yeast then, conversely, increase to 1 1/4 teaspoons active dry.  All of these yeast products work equally well, though there is a type of yeast called "osmotolerant" that is used in very sweet or very acidic doughs. It's hard to find and none of my recipes call for it. One way that I've discovered to get comparable performance from regular instant yeast instead of osmotolerant is to dissolve the yeast in warm water or milk, just as you would for active dry yeast. This isn't required of instant yeast, usually, but I found that by waking it up in warm liquid it jumpstarts it and performs quite well in sweet and acidic doughs.

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Gyozaking
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Re: Author Visit: Peter Reinhart 2/18 Noon-1:30 PM EST

Peter,

 

What is the status of the pizza show and website?

Author
Peter-Reinhart
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Re: Author Visit: Peter Reinhart 2/18 Noon-1:30 PM EST

Hi Ap269,

    Yes, every country seems to have its own numbering system to designate flour and, yes, the ash content is often used as a signifier. The ash refers to mineral in the flour, mainly in the bran, which means higher ash flour tends to have some of the bran still in the flour. (They determine the ash content of a particular flour by burning it and weighing how much mineral content is left after all the starch, sugars, and proteins burn off). I've never baked with the German flour, though, only American and Canadian and a little Italian -00- (which means, as you can guess, zero ash--a very pure sifting of high quality endosperm--the white part of the wheat berry). The world of wheat is fascinating and I've gained tremendous respect for millers now that I understand how much they have to be aware of when producing flour, which we now take so easily for granted.  BTW, European flour tends to be lower in gluten than American and Canadian flour which is probably why you need to add gluten to yours. My European recipe testers all reported the need to either reduce the liquid or increase the flour when testing my recipes. Again, this is because of the lower protein levels; protein, as mentioned in an earlier response, absorbs more moisture than starch.

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gcook17
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Re: Author Visit: Peter Reinhart 2/18 Noon-1:30 PM EST

Peter, Thank you for your great books.  They've really opened the world of baking to me. 

 

In your books you use the phrase "tacky but not sticky" a lot.  Would you please explain the difference?

 

Thanks,

Greg

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ap269
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Re: Author Visit: Peter Reinhart 2/18 Noon-1:30 PM EST

Thanks for the answer. I also noticed I had to add more flour in many recipes (or add less water than called for in the recipe).

 

Andrea

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Peter-Reinhart
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Re: Author Visit: Peter Reinhart 2/18 Noon-1:30 PM EST

Hi Tim,

    First, sure, feel free to use my recipe on your blog, but please mention the source (that's a general rule among all cookbook authors--we love to see our recipes used by others and even reprinted as long as they are attributed). Thanks for choosing it.

    Yes, my wording was confusing in the instructions. Sometimes a dough will feel just right and then, when we return to it, it seems sticky again. I would prefer that once you settle on the flour adjustments and go into the stretch and fold stages that you not add any more flour but let the stretch and folds firm up your dough. It usually will quite nicely. I think it would be better to err on the side of too sticky then too dry--stretch and folds wild fix that and later, when you go to shape the final pieces, you can always use flour on your hands to keep the dough sticking if need be. Those streth and folds should all be done before you put the dough away overnight--bad instruction placement on my part, sorry. I hope this clears it up. 

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ap269
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Re: Author Visit: Peter Reinhart 2/18 Noon-1:30 PM EST

Before this ends, I just wanted to let you know that I'm really grateful I've found your books. I'm a breadaholic now. Before I knew your books, I was baking bread using my bread machine. And I thought that was good bread. Now, I can't imagine my life without really handmade bread anymore. Thank you so much!

 

Andrea

Author
Peter-Reinhart
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Re: Author Visit: Peter Reinhart 2/18 Noon-1:30 PM EST

Hi Tim (again),

   I forgot to address your last question: I think all of the books do utilize kneading (no knead is like saying instant yeast--it's all hype to emphasize a point). It's just shorter kneading and an emphasis on wet doughs. The stretch and folds, which nearly everyone uses, is really another type of kneading in that it helps organize the gluten. The overnight fermentation allows the gluten to fully form (it really only takes about 8 minutes from the time the water meets the flour for the gluten to form as the gliadin and glutenin proteins bond to make gluten. Any other manipulation of the dough merely helps organize the gluten into a matrix to trap carbon dioxide and form a structure for the bread.  So I think everyone who has written about this approach is onto a few key principles, the main one being that you don't have to knead in the "old school" manner using the long fermentation, overnight methods. I've learned something from all of the other recent books and I think I've added a few new ideas, but let's face it, even after 6,000 of years of bread making we're still learning new tricks.